Acquired Brain Injury

The World Health Organization defines Acquired Brain Injury as an injury to the brain which is not hereditary, congenital or degenerative.

Some of the causes of brain injury include a blow to the head, whiplash injuries, seizure disorders, tumors or anoxic/hypoxic events (cardiopulmonary arrest, carbon monoxide poisoning, airway obstruction) infectious diseases and toxic exposure (substance abuse).
(BCBIA Headline, Vol 13, # 2, 1997)

For more information about acquired brain injury and resources, please check out our 2015 Resource Manual.

June is Brain Injury Awareness Month!

Thank you to the Michael Coss Foundation for permission to share this video about Michael’s journey after traumatic brain injury.

Check out The N.F.L. Issues New guidelines on Concussions – NYtimes.com

What are the common causes of head injury?

Car accidents are a major cause of serious head injury. Other causes are falls, sports and assaults. You don’t have to be hit on the top of the head – a blow to the jaw or side of the head can also cause a brain injury. People who have had previous head injuries are believed to suffer more serious repercussions when they have another. Another injury to the head before a person has fully recovered can lead to brain swelling.

What types of head injuries are there?

The four main types of head injuries are:

  • Concussion: a mild brain injury that is usually temporary.
  • Contusion: a bruise on the brain.
  • Fracture: broken skull bones.
  • Hematoma: a blood clot caused by a blow to the brain.

The head and brain can be injured whether or not the skull is actually damaged. A hard knock or jolt, even with no external sign of injury, is enough to cause a brain injury.

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms can range from none to mild pain at the site of the injury, bleeding or lack of consciousness. Indications that the injury needs medical attention include:

  • Loss of consciousness.
  • Continued headaches, and headaches that get worse.
  • Nausea and vomiting, particularly in adults.
  • Seizures.
  • Confusion.
  • Loss of memory of events surrounding injury.
  • Drowsiness or lack of responsiveness.
  • Blood or clear liquid from the ears, nose or mouth.
  • Unusually large pupils, or pupils of different sizes.
  • In infants, an inability to stop crying.

How should it be treated?

Many mild concussions don’t require more than rest and monitoring. Someone else should watch for signs of more serious injury, though. Sometimes the symptoms of a serious concussion, a contusion or hematoma may not show up for days.

Monitor when the patient does not appear to have any signs of serious injury. Make sure the person with the injury is not confused or having trouble walking. Watch for symptoms listed above.

Call the doctor if the patient later experiences dizziness, repeated vomiting, difficulty concentrating, or changes in personality.

Call an ambulance if the patient has lost consciousness, or is having seizures, paralysis, or problems walking or talking. If it is a small child, call the doctor if you think the child is not behaving as usual.

If the person has a skull fracture, put a bandage on the wound but do not try to clean it out or disturb it in any way. If the injury is serious, call an ambulance and do not try to move the patient.

Someone with a serious head injury is likely to be admitted to the hospital for treatment and observation. Symptoms can take days to show themselves. Surgery may be required to relieve pressure on the brain, if there is swelling or bleeding.

When can normal activity resume?

This will depend on the seriousness of the injury. Be sure to wait until all symptoms are gone. After a mild concussion, some people can resume normal activity almost immediately. Ask a doctor how long to wait after symptoms are gone.

Can they be prevented?

Most injuries can be prevented by sitting quietly at home – but people don’t want to live their lives that way. But a few simple steps can drastically reduce the risk:

  • Don’t drink and drive.
  • Wear a helmet when biking, inline skating or snowboarding.
  • Wear a seatbelt in the car and make sure children are in safety seats.
  • Slip-proof your home, especially the bathroom.
  • Play sports responsibly, using the proper equipment.The following are examples of the problems that might occur:

POTENTIAL DEFICITS

Physical Impairments

  • Physical Impairments
  • Speech, vision and other sensory impairments
  • Headaches
  • Lack of Coordination
  • Muscle Spasticity
  • Paralysis
  • Seizure disorders
  • Sleep problems
  • Dysphagia (swallowing disorder)
  • Dysarthgia (a disorder of articulation and muscular/motor control of speech)
  • Cognitive Impairments

Short and long term memory impairments

  • Slowness of thinking
  • Problems with reading and writing skills
  • Difficulty maintaining attention and concentration
  • Impairments of perception, communication, reasoning, problem solving, planning, sequencing and judgment

Behavioral Impairments

  • Mood swings
  • Denial
  • Depression and/or anxiety
  • Lowered self esteem
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Restlessness or impatience
  • Lack of motivation
  • Inability to self monitor, inappropriate social responses
  • Difficulty with emotional control and anger management
  • Inability to cope
  • Excessive laughing or crying
  • Difficulty relating to others
  • Irritability and/or anger
  • Agitation
  • Abrupt and unexpected acts of violence
  • Delusions, paranoia, mania